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Publisher: Baghdad University


Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. prof.dr.huda abbas kanber

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Hassan Ali Al- Sayid Al- Drragy

Editor-in-chief: Assistant Professor Dr. dr-nima dahash farhan

Print ISSN: 0552-265X

Online ISSN: 2518-9263

About Journal

About the magazine Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad. • the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor) • Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd • the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263 • E-mail to the magazine: - • Year Released: --1952 • Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

Current Issue

The Visit of the Shah of Iran to Washington in October 21-23, 1969: A study in the U.S Department of State’s reports

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 1-20

Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi tried in his visit to Washington to give the impression to the US administration that he was able to protect the interests of the United States in Iran and in the whole Arabian Gulf and the Middle East.
The visit of the Shah represented a new turning point in the history of the Iranian - US relations. It included the discussion of issues concerning both countries, especially the issue of arms and the production and sale of Iranian oil after the announcement of the British government's desire to withdraw from the Gulf region within three years.
The American leaders focused on meeting the demands of the Shah, specifically the military ones, to discuss oil production topics and methods of exporting and cooperation with US oil companies, have expressed American sympathy in dealing with the many issues.

The relationship between the authorities in the monarchy and republican regimes in Iraq

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 23-34

the study investigate the relationship of authorities sstarting from the formation of Abdul Rahman Al-Kilani interim government on 25 / October / 1925 and the issuance of the Iraqi basic law in 1925. In the Republican government after the revolution of July 14, 1958 it has put the interim constitution which did not abide by the feuding leaders (Abdel-KarimKassem and Abdul Salam Aref) and thus began the Second Republic, which came after the receipt of Abdul Salam Aref of power and the formation of a national council to lead the revolution, but he did not last long in government, Abdel Salam Aref declared on October 18, 1963 the news of the change of government in order to implement the principles of the revolution of July 14, 1958 announcing the establishment of the third Republic, and then passed the Constitution of April 22, 1964, but after seven days have been canceled this constitution to be replaced by a new constitution in the April 29, 1964 and was named the interim constitution.

Abu al-Huda al-Sayadi 1849-1909 in historical thought Modern Arabic

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 33-50

This person was one of the affective personalities in his period. His effectiveness was on the Ottoman & Arabic Countries, also Kurds they had their own opinion, so that we choose it for our research. He was one of the top advisors for Sultan Abdul Hameed Second. But after the collapse in year 1908 was treated badly. He had so many writings and most of parts goes back to that, he was considered himself as one of grandsons of Prophet Muhammed (P). There are different opinions and discussions about the personality of the person in his lifetime and after his death, the value of support to value-neutral and criticism. In general the research divided in two parts:
First part talks about this person’s Biography through historical views. Second part talks about the historical views on personality for Abu-Huda Al-Sayadi, in this part we talk about his lived part of his life in the Levant. Then a trip to Istanbul and the change that happened on his personality, and has been mentioned period Altsov and its impact on his life in the time of the Ottoman Empire and its effective role in the life of Abu Mahdi Sayadi, as especially Altsov famous Rifai, as well as the Sultan Abdul Hamid was one of the supporters of Altsov.

Exploration Of The Geographical Location Of Waq Waq Islands In The Light of Islamic Arab Geographical Sources (3-7 A.H./ 9-14 A.D.)

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 51-64

The study investigates Waq waq islands and the exploration of their geographical location through reviewing opinions and texts that emerged in the Islamic Arab geographical heritage. They are criticized and analyzed in order to know the location of these islands or the geographical location approximate to them. These islands have attracted the attention of a number of Muslim Arab geographers. The islands are considered one of the geographical signposts which the Arab geographers put beyond the equalizing line and beyond the borders of the world known by them. Hence, the paper aims at examining the challenges that faced the Arab Muslim geographers.

The role of Al-Yazouri in the route of the Fatimid caliphate 442 – 450 A.H. / 1050 – 1058 A.D.

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 91-122

Fatimid Al-Hassan bin Ali Al-Yazouri (the minister) has administrative abilities and political perception which enables him to occupy an admirable position in the Fatimid period.

Al-Yazouri capabilities’ enable him to establish an important contributions to his country, and his impact on both internal and external phases, on internal level he saw stabilization of systemic Fatimid rule, and encouraged cultural and scientific movement and treatment of the major economic problems that gripped the country during the serious crisis that passed in Egypt over the acute shortage of Nile River’s level and struck the country.

On the external level, he feast an rebellion of the prince Almuez Ben Badis in Africa on the Fatimid caliphate by attaching the Arab tribes such as , Helal , Reyah , Zukba and others to undermine. After his death of the minister in 450 A.H. / 1058 A.D. He left a great political emptiness which is appeared in his impact when fifty-four ministers failed after him in dealing with the Fatimid caliphate problems, forcing the Caliph Al-Mustansir Billah use wali Acre , Badr al-Jamali 466 A.H. / 1073 A.D to solve the problems that the state was faced.

US African Relations- Tunisia as a model

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 123-140

A significant shift in the relations of the United States of America with the countries of African continent, especially after the events of September 11th, 2001 as America drew up a new strategy to combat terrorism to prevent its spread on the continent by establishing military bases including the military command AFRIVOM, as well as the dissemination of its principles of democratization and the promotion of human rights to other principles through which it tries to uphold the values and traditions of American culture and as a result created African political leaderships with ideas, principles and beliefs pro-western in general and the United States of America, particularly, North African countries, especially Tunisia, with which the United States of America established close relations and characterized these relations, are sometimes tense and converging at other times, especially during the time of former Tunisian President Zine El Abiden Ben Ali, but these relations witnessed a remarkable development after the process of change that took place in Tunisia in 2011 that has been reflected by the involvement of the two sides in a new approach to cooperation and consultation with a view to establishing a strategic partnership to establish a different stage of the Tunisian American relations.

The influence of authorizing sequences on the development of the strategic importance of Maysan oil :Political Geography Study.

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 141-170

Misan province has large oil reserves, spread over all departments to maintain, some producing fields and other non-productive and a third is under development, and geographical factors contribution to the development of important geo-strategic Misan Oil Fields, Where there is oil in the layers it is complex and close to the surface of the earth. In addition to the quality of its quality and lower production costs, not to mention the geographical location as Misan oil fields not far from the ports of export in the Arabian Gulf, As well as its proximity to the largest oil reserves and production area in the world, giving it dimension Geopolitical, In other words, the production of the province of Misan oil remained modest due to political factors (Iraqi - Iranian war), economic factors (the economic embargo on Iraq). But oil production is increasing after entering the Misan oil fields within the licensing rounds, Which production has tripled for the period (2011-2016), it is hoped that production exceeds one million barrel threshold in 2020 Which will reflect the benefit of Iraq in general and especially to maintain that Iraq is an international rentier.

The pollution of Drinking Water in the City of Baghdad.

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 171-192

The water is the basic need of life which is connected directly with life of human, animal and plant .Hence, the salvation of it will provide a balanced of ecology system. Water pollution is considered a serious problem that threads the life in general. There are many sources of water pollution like cultural source which drainage process main source of to the increase saltiness of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in percentage of salt (20%), as well as chemical destructives are source for killing water life in about 4-5 mg/L. Also, industrial pollution is considered a dangerous source of water pollution which mixed wastes of factories with river loaded with organic and inorganic pollutant and toxic substances like mineral lead and other killing substances of the living water organisms like fish eating by human in food chain causing different disease. Removing of pollutant water with waste of human play main role in water pollution loading toxic substances of man and the same time there are decrease in number of water stations treatment comparison requirement of man life in Baghdad city. So the drinking water of Baghdad incompatible with criteria world of health organization and certain by Iraqi measurement and control quality.

The analysis of Climate Elements for Arbil and Al-Anbar Provinces: A Comparative Study from 1981-2010.

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 193-210

The present study tries to analyze the climate elements for place and time in Al-Ramadi and Qaim stations in Al-Anbar province at Plateau Western from Iraq, by showing the monthly and yearly disparity of the Climate.
In addition to that the rain and humidity which they increase in winter season only and absent in summer. The Researcher recommends planting and growing the trees that made the temperature decrease and reduce blowing wind at the province of Anbar because the difference of the soil quality and its formations apart from the factors affected the Classes Limestone as the earth declines and the lack of the natural plant. This is reflected in the soil of Arbil province which relies heavily on the Agriculture because of the high Quantity of rain, and the grasslands which attract the shepherds, As a result, the study is recommended a further economic programs layouts projects .

The problem of Urban Settlement in Iraqi cities And its solution

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 211-226

. The research aims at studying the main reasons for the problem of residency in Iraq. This problem is common in all Iraqi cities. The problem has reasons and dimensions that increase the residency deficiency because of urbanism and the immigration of the rural people to the city. That generated pressure on most of the Iraqi cities. The study conducted by which was prepared by the Iraqi Ministry of Construction and Residence affirmed these facts. It referred to the amount of deficiency and the need of housing units in the cities of Iraq, which requires efforts and economic and social abilities and the employment of all the energies to fill the gap in the field of settlement.

The geographical dimension of the revolution of Zaid al-Shaheed (peace be upon him(

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 227-244

The revolution of Zayd al-Shaheed received the attention of many researchers, whether they were the oriental or the Moroccan, not only because of their role in resisting the injustice of the rulers, but the revolution took a geographical dimension that extended to the far reaches of the earth. The research aims at shedding light on the geographical dimension of the revolution of the martyr of the martyr in the stage of the Umayyad rule. Despite the existence of many studies specialized in the martyrdom of the martyr, it did not study the geographical dimension of this revolution.

Use of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System for the Classification of Agricultural Land Uses and Land Cover in the Al-Sad Al-Adhim sub District – Iraq

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 245-272

Land use refers to the human activity associated with a particular area of land. The land cover refers to the pattern of appearances located on the surface of the earth. Survey, inventory, monitoring and classification of land use and land cover are a fundamental step in the land use planning process, in evaluating and comparing alternatives and in choosing the best and sustainable use of land for development, accomplishment economic and social well-being. Remote sensing and Geographic Information System provided advantages that conventional methods could not provide for surveys and monitoring of natural and human resources, and classification of agricultural land uses and land cover in the area of the Al-Sad Al-Adhim sub District – Iraq. Depending on the Anderson system and others to classify land uses and land cover, through the integration of digital interpretation with the use of Digital Image Processing (ERDAS IMAGINE) software, and visual interpretation using ArcGIS software. Classification of agricultural land use and land cover up to the third level, with over all accuracy of the map 90%. the percentage distribution of the areas shows that the agricultural lands ranked first and occupy 52%, then grassland occupies 19%, barren land is occupied 17%, urban areas and built up occupy 9% water is ranked last occupy 3% of the total area of the study area.

Turkish -European motives of the agreement of Turkey to the European Union: The most important difficulties faced.

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 273-291

This research aims to identify the most important motivations Turkish-European mutual in Turkey's accession to the EU, as the Turkish rush to go to join the European Union was the product of a number of motives, including what was a political, economic or security, as they find in the European Union, key to resolve most of the problems experienced by. Moreover, the EU interest in oil issues, stability, human rights and democracy, particularly in the Middle East and Central Asia region, And that the causes of instability spring from these areas also, as well as Russia's policy in the nearby areas and seeks to restore its status as a superpower in the region after the collapse of the Soviet Union, all of this points to the importance of Turkey for the EU, and nevertheless, Turkey and the European Union show that they are two things far apart they are moving away from each other, so the presence of a group cannot be ignored from the difficulties that may prevent the entry of Turkey into the European Union, at least in the foreseeable future

Agedness’ Terms in the Book of Ecclesiastes the Twelfth Sanitation : A Comparative Semitic Linguistic Study

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 291-318

This study is devoted to tackle senility (Agedness) in the Book of Ecclesiastes which is the twenty one Book of the Old Testament. It is called so "Kazr" and Ecclesiastes in the seventieth translation. The name Ecclesiastes refers to Sleman Ibn Dawood the king in Jerusalem who is a one of the pioneers in Jerusalem who is known for his wisdom and richness.
Sleman in his senility preaches a great lesson of his life, and the strength of his soul, through expressing his feelings and attitudes towards the life. Hence, he refers to his actual experience while being a king, indicating that everything was false. In this paper, we talked about what the word "Aya" means in the Book of Ecclesiastes. We have also compared between the two "Aya"s as they consist of a noun and, a letter and a vowel. In case of their recurrence, they are not to be compared for fear of confusion.

The judge ruled his knowledge

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 319-338

About this subject, it’s necessary at first the beginning say the words of the ulema in
this regard .
The jurists have two views in this regard :
First: the license absolutely that is famous for the jurists.
Second : the detail between two situations if rights for the people the judge can rule with his knowledge , if this is god’s rights he can’t rule with own knowledge .
Then on this topic it’s necessary to investigate two issues :
First : the reasons allowed the Judge to judge based of his own knowledge as well as explaining the reasons for who denied the knowledge of the Judge with his own .
Second : discussing the meaning of the Judge’s scientific knowledge and the scientific matters of the Judge .
And in the end consider two remarkable notes : first one is assisting certified persons in judging , next one is if we don’t accept the judge of the Judge according to his own knowledge what cases can he judge according to his own knowledge !?

The dynamic relationship between unification and intercession (Tawheed and Doae) in the Holy Quran

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 339-353

The intercession came in the Holy Quran in the sense of begging to the guardians of God, a desire to escape the calamities or gain mercy or reach a need. In view of the fact that the act of supplication itself is considered, on the basis of what is stated in some of the verses and Islamic Hadiths, a kind of supplication, and the supplication itself is a kind of worship of God Almighty, on this, the question that arises is that is faith in intercession is contrary, Propagation dimension, the first monotheistic origin. Based on this, we will shed light, after we addressed the sections of unification and the conflict, to study the problematic relationship between unification and intercession on two sides, starting from the destinations of Wahhabism. In the beginning, we examine, through studying the historical background, the main factor in this encounter. This article then deals with the relationship between du'aa 'and Tawhid in the Qur'aan, as well as the verses that indicate the convergence between Tawheed and Intercession or the abstention of this encounter. The conclusion of this article is that there is no correspondence between unification and intercession, but there is also a kind of homogeneity and overlap between them.

Divine attributes between the Mu'tazilah and the front Capacity is a model

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 377-405

The question of divine attributes is one of the important issues studied by the two great schools (the Imamite and the Mu'tazid). The second topic is the essence of the difference between the imamate and the isolationist, and the third is the ability. The research concludes that the difference between the imamate and the isolationist in the question of the divine attributes was precise. Very, and that the most likely say the words of Imamiyah, which proved qualities, and that the eye of the self, unlike the audience of the Mu'tazila who once said the acting, and once the conditions, and once the eye. The most likely question of divine power is absolute and infinite, unlike a number of Mu'tazilites who said that God is indescribable to the ability of the ugly and evil.

Speech terminologies of Imam Bayhaqi

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 405-424

Praise be to Allah, and peace and blessings on those who sent him a mercy to the worlds , and his family and companions and followers to the Day of Judgment .
Koran came with cohesive doctrine, it is the officer who has ruled the Secretary acts and directs behavior , reliant on the extent of discipline and provisions of every issue for the breath of words or movements even Kgat which harbors the heart .
But some questions about faith emerged and raised some suspicions about Islam and began deviant currents appearing try hitting the doctrine of the Qur'an and Sunnah Fiqid Almighty God responded to all those suspicions and had them forward Bayhaqi , was the title of our research (verbal terminology when Imam Bayhaqi) and we ask God that we have been successful in the presentation of this topic.

Argumentative Theory of probability in the philosophy of Science

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 425-450

This research was devoted to elaborate various models of probability theory which is adopted by a number of philosophers of science in the twentieth century.
The debate between them about the validity of probability theory is shown through philosophical researches, the research is distributed to fifth sections which can be listed as follow:
Part (1): The theory of classical probability (classical) has been devoted to knowledge of the basic model of probability theory.
Part (2): the theory of repetitive probability adopted by the philosopher of science Hans Reichenbach to fill the lack of the model
The basis of probability theory
part (3): The theory of logical probability adopted by the philosopher of science Rudolf Carnab to fill the logical deficit in the theory of the repetitive probability of Rischenbach, and also included sparring between them.
part(4): The theory of probability of vascular, divided into two parts:
Section 4.a: Pragmatisms is adopted by philosopher Charles Pierce
to enshrine pragmatism or tendency in the concept of probability.
Section 4.b: Karl Popper's Probabilistic Probability Theory, in which he defended the inability of probability to justify the induction method.
part(5): The theory of entropy probability, which was devoted to the contemporary theory of probability that took all previous models of probability according to information theory.

Political media and political globalization Convergence and correlation

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 451-474

The present world is witnessing strong structural indicators that reflect the interrelationship between political media and political globalization. This research presents a correlation between the two concepts and the extent of their influence on each other. The most important political media trends and their impact on the global discourse and its impact on it. In three research, introduction and conclusion,.
The second topic dealt with the concept of political media, relying on media systems and different media theories, and the embodiment of the relationship between politics and media through the role of the means of communication in strengthening political participation. Globalization and political strife towards it through the search for the essence of globalization and the mystery of its vagueness in some fields, I ask God that I have earned it and be useful, and my sense that I am a sinner and harm and perfection to the owner of perfection Glory and Glory be to God and Muhammad and J all and companions of all.. And God reconcile.

Research centers’ in the University of Technology

Alustath, 2018, Volume 2, Issue 225, Pages 475-494

The research centers are the vital tool for preparing a qualified, competent scientific and technical staffs. The aims of this research are to identify the reality of research centers in the University of Technology and highlight its role in the development of the efficiency of researchers to accomplish the scientific advancement that are attained by researchers and stand on the obstacles they face. In this research, the questionnaire dis is given to researchers, a number of search results are obtained like, the lack in cooperation between the presidency of the University of Technology and research centers. In addition to, the difficulty of movement and travelling of the researchers. Finally, a number of recommendations have been suggested, as in providing the chances of collaboration between the administrative institutions and the research centers.

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